Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy in children: a single centre experience

Hippokratia 2011; 15 (3): 258-261

N. Printza, J. Bosdou, A. Pantzaki, M. Badouraki, K. Kollios, CH. Ghogha, F. Papachristou


Background and aim: The contribution of renal biopsy is of major importance in many renal diseases in children. In our study we aimed to evaluate retrospectively the indications, safety, efficacy and the spectrum of histopathological findings of percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal (PRB) biopsy during a 7 year period as well as to analyze specific groups of renal patients.
Patients and Methods: A total of 84 renal biopsies were performed in 81 children. Demographic data, clinical symptoms at presentation, indications for renal biopsy, laboratory findings, complications of the procedure and histological diagnosis were obtained from all patients who underwent PRB.
Results: The commonest indication for biopsy accounted was steroid resistant, steroid dependent or frequent relapsing idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). Subcapsular hematoma presented 11% of the patients, but none of them needed blood transfusion. Adequate renal tissue sample was obtained in 97.7% of the renal biopsies. In 80% the histopathology revealed glomerular diseases. The most frequent types of biopsy-proven renal diseases were: focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (15%), IgA nephropathy (13.5%), minimal change disease (10%), various stages of lupus nephritis (8.5%), Henoch-Schonlein nephritis (7.5%), membranous glomerulonephritis (7.5%), mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (6%), post-infectious glomerulonephritis (6%), hemolytic uremic syndrome (5%), tubulointerstitial nephropathies (3.5%), acute tubular necrosis 2.5%. Among the 28 cases of INS, FSGS accounted for 43%. The leading histopathological pattern found in patients with recurrent episodes of gross haematuria was IgAN (84.5%). Among 7 cases of lupus nephritis, the observed histological types were: IV+V in 3/7, IIIA in 3/7 (43%) and IIB in 1/7.
Conclusions: Our study shows that percutaneous ultrasound guided renal biopsy is a safe, reliable and effective technique in children. It also provides updated information for childhood renal disease pattern.