Contrast media-induced nephropathy: case report and review of the literature focusing on pathogenesis

Hippokratia 2008, 12(2):87-93

G. Efstratiadis, P. Pateinakis, G. Tambakoudis, A. Pantzaki, D. Economidou, D. Memmos


Contrast media administration during diagnostic and invasive procedures in high risk patients for nephrotoxicity is a common problem in clinical practice. The mechanisms involved in renal function impairment after contrast media administration are not precisely known but are intensively investigated, and new data have emerged in the literature lately. We present the case of a 72-year old male patient with diabetic nephropathy to whom a new generation iso-osmolar contrast medium (iodixanol) was administered during intravenous pyelography. Due to the contrast agent administration, the patient developed irreversible acute renal failure and became dialysis-dependent. This case suggests that even new generation contrast media (including iodixanol) may be severely nephrotoxic, when administered to high risk patients. Additionally we review the complex mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of contrast media nephrotoxicity.