Is the Y chromosome all that is required for sex determination?

Hippokratia 2007, 11(3):120-123

A Karkanaki, N Praras, I Katsikis, M Kita, D Panidis


The gender identity of a person is the final result of genetic, hormonal and morphologic sex. Over a long period sex determination, and, specifically, male sex determination, has been correlated to the presence of the Y chromosome, which in turn has been the karyotype signal of the testes. However, research has provided data to convince that this theory is only part of the truth. In addition to the Y chromosome, a multitude of other genes influence sex determination and are able to cause male to female sex-reversal and vice versa. It is of great interest that these genes are located in more than one autosomal chromosomes or even in the X chromosome. It has become obvious that sex determination, according to the genetic sex, is a complicated matter that not only requires the presence of Y chromosome. This fact triggered extensive research of the Y chromosome and led to great insight into its structure, origin, evolution and eventual fate in humans.